Teaching and literature in the world ✅

What is literature? To the question made by Sartre shortly after the end of the Second World War. Barthes had answered in 1969: “Literature, is what is taught, nothing else “. Teaching and literature in the world.

Realism, art and literature

When it emerged in Europe, in the mid-nineteenth century, the discourse on realism. It’s been a long time since writers and artists have put their eyes on the surrounding reality. As the realism was already in germ in the Romanticism. The theorists of this movement, in their desire to break with the classical rules. They recommended the introduction of concrete in art. Lyric poetry had to allude to familiar objects and call things by name. The theatre was supposed to represent real life and not give it an idea outlined after the classic disguise.

The story and the novel. They could not fail to evoke the material conditions of the life of remote times or the present tense. In the preface to Cromwell (1827), Victor Hugo. In his reflection on the coexistence of the sublime and the grotesque. It takes as a starting point the double postulation body and soul, nobility and people, good and evil. In its many forms, romanticism-and not just revolutionary and utopian romanticism.

Without forgetting the writers and painters customs Spanish, to be able to speak legitimately of a “prerrealismo“. Still to study as a whole. It is interesting to note that the author who exercised the greatest influence. For his works and his aesthetic ideas, in the Spanish novelists of great realism was Balzac, which chronologically belongs to the romantic period.

Books and literature

A world to explore

The unhaggled admiration of Leopoldo Alas Clarín, (1852-1901) and Benito Pérez Galdós (1843-1920) by Gustave Flaubert and Émile Zola. It is not accompanied by decisive acceptance or ‘ art for art ‘. Of that one or the absolute scientific budgets of this one. On the other hand, the proclaimed model is Honoré de Balzac. “I advise you to write Clarín to anyone who is seriously interested in matters of literary criticism.” Never speak of hearsay or proceed by abstractions. This is why resource in this matter to any judge who does not know his Balzac. What author. Not even Flaubert, not even Zola. Leaves the impression of reality that leave many novels of the immortal author of Eugenia Grandet?.

The question of realism lies not only in the presence of any reflection of the real in the work of art. But it depends on the degree of attention and the role that is given to reality. It thus emerges the realistic orientation, like epoch phenomenon. With the collective consciousness that reality alone. (i.e. not subject to an idealization process) deserves to be the object of art. With the discourse on realism we truly enter a trend. An orientation, covering both the literature and the fine arts. Within which the naturalistic doctrine emerges, as an attempt to relate literature to science.

Books and literature

Teaching and literature in the world

Teaching literature

The realistic trend begins to be defined in France for the years 1850. And then it appears in the following decades in England, in Spain. In Portugal, in Italy and a little later in Germany. It is true that in the extension of realism to the various European countries. They influence the thought and the French currents. But there is also no doubt that in all European nations there is an evolution towards a certain type of approval. With big differences. According to the particular historical situations, of the bourgeois society.

Surprisingly, the Spanish traditionalistnovelists. As Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833-1891) or José María de Pereda (1833-1905). They are in a similar situation for them. Disappointment comes from modern life, from “progress“, and they take, they also. As an object of study contemporary society to denounce the vices of “false progress“. And seek eternal Spain beneath the appearances of modernity. And above all in the countryside, where the harmony of the Prebourgeois world remains unscathed.

Duranty and Champfleury put their theories into application in novels. Totally forgotten today (cite: the Malheur d’Henriette Gérard, 1860. of Duranty, and L’usurier Blaizot, 1853, of Champfleury), but of undeniable historical interest. The two use accurate documentation, compose real paintings according to a pictorial technique. They use the intrigue to introduce descriptions of means and types despised until then by literature and art. Peasants, artisans, workers.

Books and literature

Between two languages and two didactic approaches

Always starting from the works and the theoretical positions it is advisable to evoke a powerful aspect. Not only for the study of nineteenth realism. But for the history of realism in the literature of all time. It is about what Auerbach calls “ancient theory of stylistic levels of literary representation.” theory that is the basis of all classical or neoclassical tendencies and that in the representation of the real. It attributes the comic or burlesque paper (for example, the funny one or the peasants in the Spanish comedy of the Golden Century) to the lower classes. While the noble aspect (tragedy) corresponds to the aristocratic classes.

Romanticism, in advocating the mixture of the sublime with the grotesque, had already become emancipated from the hierarchy of the levels. But it was more by the aesthetic imperative of the search for contrast than by the ethical will to reflect reality. Stendhal and Balzac break with the classical theory. When they take any everyday life individuals to make them serious objects of representation. Problematic and even tragic.

The reading of complete works in a context

The painters represent scenes or characters taken out of the novels (for example the famous picture of Manet’s Nana). And writers feel the need to talk about painting and many are made, in a more or less occasional, art critics. It is the case of Duranty, Champfleury, Maupassant, Huysmans, the Goncourt and especially Zola. whose work as a critic of Art, recently published, constitutes a volume of 520 pages (Zola, 1991).

A whole novel of the series of the Rougon-Macquart, L’Oeuvre (1886). It is dedicated to the life and work of the Impressionist group. and Claude Lantier’s character lets his model be transparent, Cézanne. Although some traits of the character can make think of Manet or Courbet (Zola, 1974). Precisely on Courbet’s point, Zola wrote the famous phrase. “A work of art is a piece of creation seen through a temperament” (Zola, 1991, p. 44).

These coincidences and convergences between painters and writers and between literature and art are of interest according to Pierre Bourdieu (1992). The one that occurs in the Sixties and Seventies implies in fact a new coalition against the external powers, academia, etc. But much more important is the influence that the pictorial techniques exert in the writing. And in the composition of the novels. The concern for the document and the need (and will) to give the representation of the medium. of space and things. The importance they have in reality makes the composition of the work romantic less dramatic.

Books and literature

Self-help books

The action/reaction that self-help books have on the people who read it is well tested. Any one of us can have a problem of esteem at some point. Or a lack of motivation for what you want to do. In this article we will see how thanks to this genre many have been able to orient their way. and be happier. Is there anything concrete you need?
The variety of books to be available on the market. Get anyone who is interested in learning or have another point of view about something you know. do so immediately and with all possible guarantees. Thanks to reading we can, today, contribute a lot to our lives.

Of all those that we could choose, self-help books will now be our protagonists. The demand they have gained in recent years. It is what has made you pay attention and value everything you suppose in the lives of some. Would you like to be aware of everything that can influence someone?

Advantages of reading self-help books

Within this genre we find different aspects. That adapt to the needs of each of the people who want to read their content. There are many reasons that lead to these titles so that little by little. Let’s take out everything we like about them. below. We leave you with a number of benefits that gives us read about the subject in question.


Most of the time we get to look for this kind of books. It is because there is a part of us that we do not finish assimilating or understanding. The esteem, the sense of guilt or the way we behave. According to the situations can the main topics. Reading about it can help us sort our way and know how far we can go.


Reading the best self-help books can also generate that confidence in ourselves that is so lacking. Sometimes we feel frustrated but we don’t know why or how to get ahead. For these people reading can be a way to find themselves. Or take out the strengths they have. Ideal in all respects!


Thanks to the information in these books you can even get to understand yourself better. There may be times of our existence that we do not have too much success about who we are or where we are going. But with some readings we can make the process a lot easier. Didn’t you think of that?

Where can I buy good self-help books?

With the amount of benefits they assume for those people who read them. You’re probably wondering where you can find some good self-help books that you orient yourself much better in life. Or you can follow that path that you once stopped walking without knowing the reasons.

Although we can always go to conventional stores or specialized bookstores in our city, The truth is that on the Internet we have. everything much more handy and we can take us from here. The title that best suits what we want.

The Art of Reading

I think just by saying Phaidon would be enough argument to buy a book. Why? Because they smell great. Because they take care of all the details, because the quality is far from those books. (More and more!) That yellow a month to put them on your bookshelf. Because, after all, they make apart from a book what you keep with you for so many years. It’s also a nice object. But of course, there’s still more, and that’s what happens for example with this art of reading. If you agree with me on what I’ve said so far. With those things that book lovers. We are glad or give us that extra dose of conviction for the purchase. Then I’m almost ready to force you to buy this book.

And I say almost because there is one thing I would like to clarify or rather that I clarification. And it is the fact that being Phaidon and knowing how they make the books and the route they have. The cover of this is strangely imperfect. And I say imperfect because the cover image is a paper sticker on the cardboard. And the impression of the title, contrasts much with the great quality that emanates the book of its interior. Something rare that fortunately is outweighed only with the fact of opening the book.

Books and readers in the Art of Pompeii

The Art of reading: books and readers in the art of Pompeii to our days. It is a compendium that weighs and occupies about 300 works. That over more than 2,000 years have paid homage to the book. Basically it’s kind of like thanking the books with a book. And what better for it than with all the imagery, including paintings, sculptures. Exhibitions, photographs, actions, etc. Teaching and literature in the world.

There’s everything from a classic 2nd-century sculpture of a boy with a book in his hand. Even the surreal book transformed into a of Dali. Books alone, together, books with people. People with books, books open and closed, whole or broken or burned. But books. We forgot for a while from the self to give it all to the book.

Mixed the images with famous quotations around the figure of the book and a prologue of the author. Where he seeks to explain briefly and quickly the evolution throughout the history of the book. This art of reading is the perfect gift for that person you know. She’s crazy about books. Even if it’s you. Who knows, maybe this is the first book in that library you’ve always wanted to ride in your house and that’s. As Archibald Macleish says in some corner of the book. “The most important thing in a library, more than anything else, is the fact that it exists.” And this book, more than anything else, is already in itself a library. Long live books long life to Reading.